All You Need To Know About Running LLMs Locally

26 Feb 202410:29

TLDRThe video discusses the benefits and methods of running AI chatbots and language models (LMs) locally, offering alternatives to subscription-based AI services. It introduces various user interfaces like uaba, silly Tarvin, LM Studio, and Axel AO, highlighting their features and suitability for different user needs. The importance of selecting appropriate models based on GPU capabilities and understanding model formats like EXL 2, ggf, and awq is emphasized. Strategies for fine-tuning AI models with Kora and utilizing hardware acceleration frameworks are also discussed. The video provides a comprehensive guide for users looking to maximize their AI capabilities without monthly costs, while ensuring privacy and performance.


  • ๐Ÿ’ก The 2024 job market has more hiring opportunities despite the subscription-based AI services becoming more prevalent.
  • ๐Ÿค– Running AI chatbots and LM models locally can be a cost-effective alternative to subscription services, offering more control and flexibility.
  • ๐ŸŽจ Choosing the right user interface is crucial, with options like uaba for text generation, silly Tarvin for a visually appealing front end, and LM Studio for a straightforward executable file.
  • ๐Ÿ” LM Studio features a Hugging Face model browser, making it easier to find and use AI models, and can be used as an API for other applications.
  • ๐Ÿ“Š Axel AO is a command-line interface that provides excellent support for fine-tuning AI models, making it the top choice for in-depth customization.
  • ๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Users can download free and open-source models from Hugging Face using U goa's built-in downloader by pasting the URL slugs.
  • ๐Ÿ”‘ Model names often include a version number and a 'b' indicating the number of billion parameters, which can help gauge if the model can run on your GPU.
  • ๐Ÿง  Understanding different model formats and optimization techniques like EXL 2, ggf, awq, and gbq is essential for efficiently running models with reduced resource requirements.
  • ๐ŸŽ๏ธ CPU offloading allows models to run on systems with limited VRAM by offloading parts of the model to the CPU and system RAM, making it possible for smaller systems to handle larger models.
  • ๐Ÿ” Fine-tuning models with tools like Kora can significantly improve model performance for specific tasks without the need to retrain the entire model, saving time and resources.

Q & A

  • What was the initial expectation for the job market in 2024?

    -The initial expectation was that 2024 would be a job market hell.

  • Why might some people consider the subscription to AI services like green Jor not worth the cost?

    -Some might find it not worth the cost because they believe they can run equivalent AI bots for free locally, and the service restricts usage to certain times.

  • What are the three modes offered by the uaba UI?

    -The three modes are default (basic input output), chat (dialogue format), and notebook (text completion).

  • How does the silly Tarvin UI differ from uaba?

    -Silly Tarvin focuses more on the front-end experience, offering features like role-playing and visual novel-like presentations, and requires a backend like uaba to run AI models.

  • What are some key features of LM Studio?

    -LM Studio offers a Hugging Face model browser for easier model discovery, and it provides quality of life improvements and can be used as an API for other applications.

  • Why is Axel AO the preferred choice for fine-tuning AI models?

    -Axel AO is a command-line interface that offers the best support for fine-tuning AI models, making it ideal for users who delve deeply into this process.

  • What does the 'b' in a model's name and number indicate?

    -The 'b' indicates the number of billion parameters the model has, which can be an indicator of whether the model can run on your GPU.

  • What is the significance of the EXL 2 file format?

    -EXL 2 is a format used by XLAMa V2 that mixes quantization levels within a model to achieve an average bit rate between 2 and 8 bits per weight, making it the fastest optimization for Nvidia GPUs.

  • How can CPU offloading help with running large models on limited hardware?

    -CPU offloading allows models to be offloaded onto the CPU and system RAM, enabling the running of larger models even on hardware with lower VRAM, at the expense of speed.

  • What is the importance of context length in AI models?

    -Context length, which includes instructions, input prompts, and conversation history, is crucial as it provides the AI with more information to process prompts accurately, such as summarizing documents or keeping track of previous conversations.

  • What is the golden rule in AI fine-tuning?

    -The golden rule in AI fine-tuning is 'garbage in, garbage out,' meaning that if the training data is poorly organized, the results will be of poor quality.



๐Ÿค– Exploring AI Subscription Services and Local Model Execution

The paragraph discusses the shift from the anticipated job market challenges in 2024 to the prevalence of AI subscription services and the benefits of running AI models locally. It introduces 'green Jor' as an example of a service offering basic coding and email writing capabilities. The speaker questions the value of such services when free alternatives like 'freee Bots' and 'chat gbt' are available. The focus then moves to the importance of selecting the right user interface (UI) for AI models, highlighting three popular options: text generation web UI (uaba), silly Tarvin for a visually appealing front-end experience, and LM Studio for a straightforward executable file experience. The paragraph concludes with a recommendation to use uaba for its comprehensive functionality and compatibility across various operating systems and hardware.


๐Ÿ“š Navigating Model Formats and Fine-Tuning Techniques

This section delves into the intricacies of AI model formats and the concept of fine-tuning. It begins by discussing the challenges of running large models due to their high parameter count and memory requirements, but offers solutions like CPU offloading and various optimization techniques (EXL 2, ggf, awq, and gbq) to make models more manageable. The importance of context length in AI models is emphasized, as it affects the model's ability to understand and respond to prompts effectively. The paragraph also touches on the potential of hardware acceleration frameworks like Triton Inference Engine and Nvidia's TensorRT to enhance model performance. It concludes with an introduction to Chat with RTX, an app that leverages local computing resources for tasks like document scanning and video content analysis, emphasizing its privacy benefits.


๐ŸŒŸ Maximizing AI Potential through Fine-Tuning and Community Support

The final paragraph emphasizes the importance of fine-tuning AI models for specific tasks, highlighting Kora as an efficient method that targets only a fraction of a model's parameters. It stresses the need for well-organized training data to achieve effective fine-tuning results. The paragraph also mentions alternative fine-tuning techniques for different purposes, such as generating morally constrained responses or human-preferred answers. Additionally, it explores extensions that integrate AI models with databases and suggests potential applications like local file inquiries and code assistance. The speaker encourages embracing local model execution as a cost-effective way to leverage AI capabilities, especially during a hiring freeze. Lastly, the paragraph announces a giveaway of an Nvidia RTX 480 super, urging viewers to participate in a virtual GTC session for a chance to win and supporting the speaker through Patreon or YouTube.



๐Ÿ’กAI Services

AI Services refer to the subscription-based platforms that provide access to artificial intelligence models, often for a monthly fee. In the context of the video, the speaker discusses the potential downsides of such services, like limited access and the cost involved, compared to running AI models locally on one's own computer.


Running AI models locally means executing them on a user's own computer or device, rather than relying on cloud-based services. This approach can offer benefits such as lower costs, increased privacy, and independence from internet connectivity issues.

๐Ÿ’กUser Interface (UI)

In the context of the video, the user interface (UI) refers to the visual and interactive components through which users interact with AI models. Different UIs cater to different user needs and levels of expertise, with options like text generation web UI, chat format, and notebook style interfaces.

๐Ÿ’กHugging Face

Hugging Face is an open-source platform that hosts a wide variety of AI models, particularly natural language processing models. It allows users to browse, download, and use these models for their own purposes, often for free.


Fine-tuning in the context of AI models involves adjusting a pre-trained model to better suit a specific task or data set. This process improves the model's performance without the need to start training from scratch, saving time and computational resources.


A GPU, or Graphics Processing Unit, is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display device. In the context of AI, GPUs are crucial for their ability to perform complex calculations quickly, which is essential for training and running AI models.


Quantization is a process in AI model optimization that reduces the precision of the model's parameters, thereby reducing the model's size and memory requirements. This technique allows for models to run more efficiently on devices with limited resources, though it may result in a trade-off with the model's accuracy.

๐Ÿ’กContext Length

In AI language models, context length refers to the amount of prior text or conversation history that the model can consider when generating a response. A longer context length allows the model to better understand and respond to complex prompts or continue conversations effectively.

๐Ÿ’กCPU Offloading

CPU offloading is a technique that allows certain parts of an AI model to be processed by the central processing unit (CPU) rather than the graphics processing unit (GPU). This can be useful for running large models on systems where the GPU memory (VRAM) is limited.

๐Ÿ’กHardware Acceleration

Hardware acceleration refers to the use of specialized hardware, such as GPUs or other dedicated processors, to speed up the processing of certain tasks. In the context of AI, this often means using these hardware components to increase the speed and efficiency of model inference and training.


Transformers is a type of deep learning model architecture that has become the foundation for many state-of-the-art natural language processing systems. It is known for its ability to handle complex sequences of data, like text, by attending to all parts of the input at once.


The job market situation in 2024 turned out to be better than expected, with increased hiring opportunities.

AI Services have become a subscription-based model, offering AI assistants for a monthly fee.

Some users question the value of paying for AI services when they can run equivalent bots locally.

The video serves as a guide on how to run AI chatbots and LM models locally.

The importance of choosing the right user interface is emphasized, with options like uaba, silly Tarvin, LM Studio, and Axel AO.

uaba offers three modes: default, chat, and notebook, catering to different user needs.

Silly Tarvin focuses on the front-end experience and requires a backend like uaba to run AI models.

LM Studio provides native functions like the Hugging Face model browser and supports model hopping.

Axel AO is a command-line interface ideal for fine-tuning AI models.

The video demonstrates using uaba for its well-rounded functionalities and support on various operating systems.

Hugging Face offers a wide range of free and open-source models, with the ability to download using U goa's built-in downloader.

Model names often include a version and a 'b' indicating the number of billion parameters, which can help gauge the model's requirements.

Mixture of experts models are indicated by 'Moe' in the model name and explained in a previous video.

Various file formats and optimization methods like EXL 2, ggf, awq, and gbq are discussed, each with its own advantages and use cases.

Context length is crucial for AI models to function effectively, with longer context allowing for more informed responses.

CPU offloading allows models to run on systems with limited VRAM by using system RAM and CPU.

Hardware acceleration frameworks like Triton Inference Engine and Nvidia's Tensor RT can significantly improve model speed.

Chat with RTX is a local UI app that connects a model to local documents and data for privacy and versatility.

Fine-tuning models is an efficient way to customize AI behavior without training the entire model.

The importance of high-quality training data is stressed for successful fine-tuning results.

The video also mentions extensions like llama index for integrating LM with databases and using local models for cost-saving.

Running local LMs can save money and maintain performance, potentially being the start of an efficient AI usage journey.