# AI Just Solved a 53-Year-Old Problem! | AlphaTensor, Explained

TLDRAlphaTensor, a breakthrough by DeepMind, has solved a 53-year-old matrix multiplication problem, potentially revolutionizing machine learning. By transforming the task into a 'tensor game,' AI discovered new algorithms, improving upon traditional methods and even tailoring them to specific hardware for optimal performance. This not only accelerates computations but also opens up the possibility for AI to discover new algorithms across various fields.

### Takeaways

- 🧠 AlphaTensor represents a breakthrough in optimizing matrix multiplication, a fundamental operation in deep learning.
- 🔍 The script explains how traditional methods of matrix multiplication can be inefficient and costly in terms of computational operations.
- 📚 High school algebra offers a trick to reduce the number of multiplications needed to solve equations, inspiring a similar approach for matrix operations.
- 🤖 DeepMind's AlphaZero demonstrated AI's ability to master complex games, setting the stage for applying similar techniques to other complex problems.
- 🕵️♂️ Volker Strassen's algorithm from 1969 was a significant step towards more efficient matrix multiplication, but it wasn't the end of the story.
- 🚀 AlphaTensor was trained to play a 'tensor game' where it discovered new, previously unknown algorithms for matrix multiplication.
- 📉 The script highlights a comparison between AlphaTensor's algorithms and existing human-created methods, showing improvements in efficiency.
- 🏆 AlphaTensor's achievement is not just in finding fewer multiplications, but also in optimizing for the fastest execution time on specific hardware.
- 🌐 The implications of AlphaTensor's success extend beyond matrix multiplication, suggesting AI's potential to discover new algorithms across various fields.
- 🔑 The script raises the question of what other complex problems AI might tackle next, hinting at a future where AI could revolutionize algorithm discovery.

### Q & A

### What is the significance of the breakthrough with AlphaTensor?

-AlphaTensor represents a significant breakthrough because it has the potential to revolutionize the way we perform matrix multiplications, which are fundamental to machine learning and deep learning systems.

### Why is matrix multiplication considered expensive in terms of computation?

-Matrix multiplication is considered expensive in terms of computation because it involves a large number of multiplication operations, which can slow down the overall process, especially when dealing with large matrices.

### What is the traditional method of multiplying two matrices taught in schools?

-The traditional method of multiplying two matrices taught in schools involves computing each element of the resulting matrix by performing the dot product of rows from the first matrix with columns from the second matrix.

### Who is Volker Strassen and what contribution did he make to matrix multiplication?

-Volker Strassen is a German mathematician who, in 1969, introduced an algorithm that improved upon the traditional method of matrix multiplication by reducing the number of multiplication operations required.

### How does Strassen's algorithm improve upon the traditional matrix multiplication method?

-Strassen's algorithm improves upon the traditional method by using a set of equations that allow for the computation of the final result with fewer multiplication operations, especially beneficial for larger matrices.

### What is the 'tensor game' and how does it relate to AlphaTensor?

-The 'tensor game' is a concept where DeepMind turned matrix multiplication into a single-player game, allowing AlphaTensor to teach itself how to find new, previously unknown algorithms for matrix multiplication.

### How did DeepMind's AlphaZero project influence the development of AlphaTensor?

-AlphaZero's success in teaching itself to play and win at complex games inspired DeepMind to apply similar principles to matrix multiplication, leading to the development of AlphaTensor.

### What is unique about AlphaTensor's approach to finding new algorithms for matrix multiplication?

-AlphaTensor's unique approach lies in its ability to not only find algorithms that reduce the number of multiplication operations but also to optimize matrix multiplication for specific hardware, tailoring the algorithm to perform faster on different GPUs.

### What are the implications of AlphaTensor's success for the field of machine learning?

-The success of AlphaTensor has significant implications for machine learning, as improvements in matrix multiplication can lead to faster and more efficient deep learning computations, potentially accelerating advancements in the field.

### What does the future hold for AlphaTensor and AI in discovering new algorithms?

-The future for AlphaTensor and AI in discovering new algorithms is promising, as it opens up the possibility for AI to find optimal solutions in various computational problems, potentially revolutionizing fields beyond machine learning.

### Outlines

### 🚀 Revolutionary Matrix Multiplication with AlphaTensor

The speaker introduces AlphaTensor as a groundbreaking development with the potential to revolutionize various fields. They begin by explaining the inefficiency of traditional matrix multiplication methods, highlighting the importance of reducing the number of multiplication operations for faster computation. The historical context of matrix multiplication optimization is provided, mentioning Volker Strassen's algorithm from 1969. The speaker then transitions to the role of artificial intelligence in this domain, specifically DeepMind's AlphaZero, which has demonstrated the ability to master complex games. The paragraph concludes with the introduction of AlphaTensor, an AI system that has been trained to discover new matrix multiplication algorithms, emphasizing its potential to optimize computational processes.

### 🎲 AlphaTensor's Impact on Matrix Multiplication and Beyond

This paragraph delves into the implications of AlphaTensor's achievements in optimizing matrix multiplication. It discusses how DeepMind transformed the matrix multiplication problem into a 'tensor game,' allowing the system to autonomously discover new algorithms. The comparison of AlphaTensor's results with state-of-the-art methods is highlighted, showing that it either matches or improves upon human-created algorithms. The speaker also explains the significance of reducing the number of multiplication operations and the shift in AlphaTensor's reward system to focus on overall computation time, rather than just the number of operations. The potential of AlphaTensor to tailor matrix multiplication algorithms to specific hardware is noted, and the broader impact of such an AI system capable of discovering new algorithms in various domains is pondered, raising questions about future possibilities.

### Mindmap

### Keywords

### 💡Matrix Multiplication

### 💡AlphaTensor

### 💡Deep Learning

### 💡Volker Strassen

### 💡Naive Algorithm

### 💡Optimization

### 💡AlphaZero

### 💡Tensor Game

### 💡Hardware

### 💡Machine Learning

### 💡Breakthrough

### Highlights

AI has made a breakthrough in solving a 53-year-old problem with AlphaTensor.

AlphaTensor is about optimizing matrix multiplication, a fundamental operation in deep learning.

Traditional matrix multiplication can be inefficient, requiring multiple operations.

High school algebra offers a trick to reduce the number of multiplications needed.

Deep learning systems are based on linear algebra, often involving slow matrix multiplications.

Volker Strassen's algorithm in 1969 provided a faster way to multiply matrices.

Strassen's algorithm reduces the number of multiplications needed for matrix multiplication.

Despite advancements, the optimal way to multiply matrices, especially for small sizes, remains unknown.

DeepMind's focus on creating digital superintelligence led to the development of AlphaZero.

AlphaZero taught itself to play and win at complex games like chess, shogi, and go.

DeepMind applied the concept of a single-player game to matrix multiplication, creating the 'tensor game'.

AlphaTensor taught itself to find new, previously unknown algorithms for matrix multiplication.

Matrix multiplication has more possibilities to consider than Go, making it a much more difficult problem.

AlphaTensor's results consistently match or improve upon human-created methods for matrix multiplication.

DeepMind adjusted AlphaTensor's reward to optimize not just the number of operations, but the overall time taken.

AlphaTensor can now find the optimal matrix multiplication method for specific hardware.

The implications of AlphaTensor are vast, as it can discover new algorithms for foundational operations in machine learning.

The potential for AI to discover new algorithms is a game changer for the field of computer science.

The question remains: What other problems can AI solve that have eluded human researchers for decades?