# Tic Tac Toe AI with MiniMax using Python | Part 2: Minimax

TLDRThis video tutorial guides viewers through implementing an AI for Tic Tac Toe using the Minimax algorithm in Python. It explains the concept of Minimax, where 'X' aims to maximize its score and 'O' tries to minimize it. The AI evaluates every possible move and chooses the one with the best outcome, either a win or a draw. The tutorial covers initializing the game board, defining the minimax function, and creating a winning, unbeatable bot. It concludes with a demonstration of the AI playing against a human, showcasing its effectiveness.

### Takeaways

- 😀 The video introduces the implementation of an AI for a Tic Tac Toe game using the Minimax algorithm.
- 🔍 The Minimax algorithm is explained visually, highlighting the roles of the maximizing and minimizing players.
- 🏆 The maximizing player (X) aims to assign the highest score to win, while the minimizing player (O) seeks the lowest score to prevent X from winning.
- 🎯 The algorithm evaluates every possible move on the board, assigning scores to determine the best move.
- 🌳 The script describes a recursive approach where the program simulates playing out the game to its conclusion to choose the optimal move.
- 🔄 The Minimax function is central to the AI's decision-making, alternating between maximizing and minimizing turns.
- 💡 The script provides a practical example of how to initialize the best score and move, and how to iterate over possible moves to find the best one.
- 🛠️ Debugging tips are shared, such as fixing errors in the code to ensure the AI functions correctly.
- 📊 The video demonstrates the AI playing against a human, showcasing its ability to calculate and make moves that lead to a win or a draw.
- 🏁 The conclusion celebrates the creation of an unbeatable Tic Tac Toe bot, emphasizing the effectiveness of the Minimax algorithm in game theory.

### Q & A

### What is the main objective of implementing the AI in the Tic Tac Toe game?

-The main objective is to allow users to play against an AI opponent, showcasing how the AI works using the minimax algorithm to determine the best move.

### How does the minimax algorithm work in the context of Tic Tac Toe?

-The minimax algorithm assigns scores to each possible position on the board, with the maximizing player (X) aiming for the highest score and the minimizing player (O) aiming for the lowest. It evaluates every possible move and chooses the one with the best score, leading to a win or a draw if a win is not possible.

### What are the roles of X and O in the minimax algorithm?

-In the minimax algorithm, X is the maximizing player, trying to maximize their score by choosing the move with the highest score. O is the minimizing player, aiming to minimize the score by choosing the move that leads to the lowest possible score for X.

### How does the AI determine the best move in the game?

-The AI determines the best move by recursively evaluating every possible move, simulating the game's outcome for each, and selecting the move that results in the highest score for the maximizing player.

### What is the significance of the 'best score' and 'best move' variables in the AI's decision-making process?

-The 'best score' variable is initialized to a very low value to ensure any move's score will be higher. The 'best move' variable is used to keep track of the move that corresponds to the highest score, which the AI will ultimately choose.

### Why is the depth parameter used in the minimax function?

-The depth parameter is used to limit the recursion depth in more complex games. In Tic Tac Toe, it's not strictly necessary due to the limited number of moves, but it's included to demonstrate how it can be used in games with more extensive move trees.

### What is a terminal state in the context of the minimax algorithm?

-A terminal state in the minimax algorithm is a game state where the recursion stops, such as when there is a win, a loss, or a draw. These states are used to assign a final score to the game outcome.

### How does the AI handle different game outcomes like win, loss, or draw?

-The AI assigns a score of 100 for a win, -100 for a loss, and 0 for a draw. These scores are used to evaluate the desirability of each move, with the AI aiming to maximize its score.

### What is the role of the 'isMaximizing' boolean value in the minimax function?

-The 'isMaximizing' boolean value determines whether the current player is trying to maximize or minimize the score. It switches between true and false as the function alternates between considering the AI's moves and the opponent's potential responses.

### How does the AI play against itself in the minimax algorithm?

-The AI plays against itself by recursively calling the minimax function, where it alternates between maximizing (choosing the best move for itself) and minimizing (choosing the best move for the opponent) until a terminal state is reached.

### Outlines

### 🎮 Implementing AI in Tic-Tac-Toe with Minimax Algorithm

This paragraph introduces the concept of adding an AI opponent to a tic-tac-toe game using the minimax algorithm. It explains the algorithm visually, using a board state example where 'X' is the maximizing player and 'O' is the minimizing player. The goal is to assign scores to each possible move to determine the best strategy. The AI's strategy involves simulating every possible move to maximize its chances of winning or drawing if a win is not possible. The paragraph sets the stage for implementing the minimax function in code, emphasizing the importance of starting with a low score and iterating over each possible move to find the optimal one.

### 🤖 Coding the Minimax Algorithm for Tic-Tac-Toe

This paragraph delves into the coding aspect of the minimax algorithm for tic-tac-toe. It discusses initializing variables for the best score and move, and how to iterate over each possible move on the board. The paragraph explains the need for a helper function to check for a win or draw and how to use this function within the minimax algorithm. It also describes the process of recursively checking each move, assigning scores, and selecting the move with the highest score. The paragraph concludes with a focus on defining the minimax function, which includes handling terminal states such as win, loss, or draw, and determining the current player's role as either maximizer or minimizer.

### 🏆 Testing the Unbeatable Tic-Tac-Toe Bot

The final paragraph describes the testing phase of the tic-tac-toe bot. It covers the debugging process, where errors are identified and corrected, such as using 'keys' instead of 'key'. Once the bot is operational, it demonstrates the bot's ability to play against itself, using the minimax algorithm to determine the best moves. The paragraph illustrates the bot's effectiveness by showing it playing out a game to a draw and then to a win. It concludes with a call to action for viewers to ask questions and engage with the content, and an invitation to support the channel through subscriptions.

### Mindmap

### Keywords

### 💡Minimax Algorithm

### 💡Tic Tac Toe

### 💡AI

### 💡Maximizing Player

### 💡Minimizing Player

### 💡Board State

### 💡Recursion

### 💡Terminal State

### 💡Score Assignment

### 💡Best Move

### Highlights

Introduction to implementing AI in a tic-tac-toe game using the Minimax algorithm.

Explanation of the Minimax algorithm, assigning scores to each position on the board.

X is the maximizing player, aiming to maximize their score, while O is the minimizing player.

The algorithm checks every possible position and assigns scores to determine the best move.

Simulation of the game playout to demonstrate how the AI makes decisions.

The AI plays every possible move to simulate the game and choose the move with the highest score.

Initialization of the best score and move in the Minimax algorithm.

Iterating over each possible move and checking if the position is empty.

Assigning a score to each move using the Minimax function.

Reverting the board state after scoring to allow for the next move evaluation.

Updating the best score and move if a higher score is found.

Defining the Minimax function with the current board state, depth, and maximizing or minimizing player.

Creating a helper function to check which player has won.

Assigning scores based on winning, losing, or drawing the game.

Determining the current player's turn to either maximize or minimize the score.

Recursively playing out the game to find the best move.

The AI plays against itself to determine the best move without waiting for a human move.

Fixing errors in the code to ensure the AI functions correctly.

Testing the AI in a game to demonstrate its effectiveness.

The AI is designed to be unbeatable in tic-tac-toe using the Minimax algorithm.